In my short amount of experience with shared_ptr objects, I've found some common pitfalls and best practices, so here goes.
- Pass shared_ptr objects as parameter by reference whenever possible. Why? Because passing the shared_ptr object by value will cause a copy of the object to be created, using a copy constructor. This is not a very light operation: it creates a new shared_ptr object and sets its internal pointer to the copied shared_ptr's internal pointer, and it increments the reference count in the control block shared by all shared_ptr that point to this internal pointer. This copy construction takes 10-20 times longer than simply passing a raw pointer - and, worst of all, it does not have any added benefits. The copied shared_ptr is destroyed as soon as the scope is exited. In an application that requires many function calls with shared_ptr parameters, this can seriously hamper performance. Passing a shared_ptr object by reference, however, is equivalent to passing a raw pointer. The downside is that implicit casting is not supported when passing a reference.
- Don't use shared_ptr objects in performance oriented algorithms. Don't use shared_ptr objects in code that encodes or decodes a buffer, for example. It makes no sense. If the buffer that is being encoded/decoded is passed as a shared_ptr - great. Take the internal pointer using the get() method and code the encoding/decoding using raw pointers. Since the shared_ptr is still in scope - the dynamically allocated object will not be deallocated. Using raw pointers instead of shared_ptr's as the basis for such encoding/decoding can prevent many, many occurences of dereferencing the shared_ptr. In our code, an experience coder made this exact mistake of using the shared_ptr for an encoder/decoder, and discovered that it operated over 20 times slower!
- Don't use shared_ptr objects for private data members, unless they are passed in via the constructor or setter methods. I don't think there is any need explaining why this is pointless - if a data member is constructed internally and is used internally, it can be deleted internally.
- Use enable_shared_from_this<> when necessary, but remember that shared_from_this() only works when you already have a shared_ptr somewhere in the process. If you call shared_from_this() on an object that was dynamically created somewhere, but does not already have a shared_ptr object pointing to it - you'll see the following exception:
std::tr1::bad_weak_ptr at memory location 0xDEADBEEF
std::bad_weak_ptr at memory location 0xDEADBEEF
This is because shared_from_this() actually searches for a shared_ptr control block (which, as we stated above, is shared for all shared_ptr objects and contains the reference counter) inside its internal data structures - and if it does not find a control block (as there is no shared_ptr object at all), it throws this exception. It goes without saying that a shared_ptr to an automatic (stack allocated) variable is as bad as delete'ing such a variable.